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Tanssion > blog > amplifiers > Types, characteristics, basic principles and applications of amplifiers

Types, characteristics, basic principles and applications of amplifiers

Author: Tanssion Date: 2023-07-07 Hits: 0

Ⅰ. Types, Features and Applications of Common Amplifiers
Ⅱ. Fundamentals of Amplifiers
Ⅲ. Amplifiers for Audio and RF Applications

An amplifier is a device that can amplify the voltage or power of an input signal and consists of a tube or transistor, a power transformer and other electrical components. Used in various devices such as communications, broadcasting, radar, television, and automatic control.


What are the common amplifier types? What are their respective characteristics and applications?


Here are some common amplifier types along with their characteristics and applications:


Voltage Amplifier:


Features: The voltage amplifier amplifies the signal by increasing the voltage of the input signal. It has high input impedance and low output impedance, which can realize voltage amplification without changing the power of the signal.


Applications: audio amplifiers, video amplifiers, RF preamplifiers, etc.


Power amplifier (Power Amplifier):


Features: The power amplifier can not only amplify voltage, but also amplify current, thus providing higher power output. It has low input impedance and high output impedance.


Applications: Audio systems, wireless communication systems, TV transmitters and other applications that require higher output power.


Operational Amplifier:


Features: An operational amplifier is a special type of amplifier that has very high gain, input impedance, and output impedance. It can perform various mathematical operations and signal processing tasks.


Applications: Analog signal processing, filters, comparators, integrators and other applications requiring precise signal processing.


Differential Amplifier:


Features: A differential amplifier has two inputs and can amplify the difference between two input signals. It has high common mode rejection ratio and anti-interference ability.


Applications: audio signal differential amplification, differential signal transmission in data communication, sensor signal processing, etc.


Integrated Amplifier:


Features: An integrated amplifier is an amplifier that integrates multiple amplifier circuits on a single chip. It usually contains input and output stage amplifiers, and other auxiliary circuits.


Applications: Audio amplifiers, RF preamplifiers, sensor signal processing and other applications that require small size and integration.


Distributed Amplifier:


Features: Distributed amplifiers use transmission lines and distributed components to amplify signals, featuring broadband and high linearity. It is suitable for high frequency and broadband applications.


Applications: RF communications, radar systems, satellite communications and other high-frequency broadband applications.


Each of these amplifier types has different characteristics and application areas. When selecting and designing an amplifier, factors such as gain, frequency response, power requirements, linearity, anti-interference ability, and circuit complexity need to be considered according to specific needs and requirements.


The basic structure of the amplifier: input the signal to be tested, after amplification and band-pass filtering, the result obtained by inputting the multiplier together with the reference signal is then filtered by a low-pass filter and then output.



What is the basic principle of an amplifier?


The basic principle of an amplifier is to use the amplification characteristics of electronic devices to increase the amplitude or power of an input signal to a higher level without changing the shape or frequency of the signal.


Amplifiers usually consist of one or more active devices, such as transistors or vacuum tubes, that control current or voltage to amplify a signal. The working process of the amplifier can be described by the following steps:


Input Signal: The amplifier accepts an input signal from audio, video, communication, or other electronic equipment. The input signal can be an electrical signal in the form of voltage, current or power.


Excitation device: The excitation device (such as a transistor) in the amplifier takes the input signal as a control signal, and by adjusting the change of current or voltage, the output signal is amplified accordingly.


Energy Supply: Amplifiers usually require an energy supply, such as a power supply, to provide the required electrical energy or power to drive the actuator.


Amplification process: The excitation device amplifies the input signal to increase its amplitude or power. This is accomplished by stimulating the amplification properties of the device, such as the amplification factor or gain of a transistor.


Output Signal: The amplified signal is output from the output of the amplifier and passed to a connected device (such as speakers, monitor, etc.) for further processing or amplification.


The performance of an amplifier can be described by parameters such as gain, bandwidth, and distortion. Gain indicates how many times the amplifier amplifies the input signal, bandwidth indicates the frequency range in which the amplifier can operate, and distortion indicates the difference between the output signal of the amplifier and the input signal.


The purpose of the amplifier: It is mainly used to detect weak signals with a very low signal-to-noise ratio. Even if the useful signal is submerged in the noise signal, even if the noise signal is much larger than the useful signal, as long as the frequency value of the useful signal is known, the amplitude of the signal can be accurately measured.



The application of amplifiers in the audio and radio frequency fields has the following differences and characteristics:


Application characteristics in the field of radio frequency:


Frequency range: RF signals typically range in frequency from a few hundred kilohertz (kHz) to a few hundred megahertz (MHz, GHz) or even higher. For wireless communication, radar, satellite communication and other applications.


Signal processing: RF amplifiers need to have higher gain and power output to cope with higher frequencies and complex modulation methods. RF amplifiers also need to have good linearity, high efficiency and anti-interference ability.


Power requirements: RF amplifiers usually need to provide higher power output to meet the needs of RF signal transmission. The power range is usually several watts to tens of watts or more.


Application features in the audio field:


Frequency Range: Audio signals typically lie in the 20 Hz to 20 kHz range and are used for amplification and processing of music, speech, and other sounds.


Signal Processing: The main goal of an audio amplifier is to maintain the accuracy and fidelity of the signal to ensure the quality of the audio signal. Audio amplifiers generally require low distortion, high signal-to-noise ratio, and linear amplification capabilities.


Power Requirements: Audio amplifiers usually need to provide modest power output to meet the requirements of speakers or sound systems. The power range is usually between a few watts and tens of watts.


In addition, the design and manufacturing requirements of RF amplifiers are higher, because they need to consider the challenges of circuit layout, comprehensive anti-interference and thermal management in the high-frequency and high-power working environment. In addition, RF amplifiers usually need to be matched and work together with other RF components such as filters, antennas, etc.



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